The United Nations Framework Convetion on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has received Somalia’s NAPA documents on first May, 2013. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/som01.pdf
Somalia has been troubled by internal conflicts for over two decades, which has led to enormous development challenges. In October 2012, a new provisional constitution was adopted and a new parliament inaugurated, ushering in the Federal Government of Somalia, the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. The new government is acutely aware of the risks that climate change represents to progress on key development indicators and maintaining peace and security and is committed to tackling these challenges.
The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is a first step toward articulating and implementing a nationwide strategy that addresses the impacts of climate change across Somalia. The overarching vision set out in the NAPA is to make the Somali people more resilient to climate change, recognizing their high vulnerability in an economy that is dominated by a high dependence on natural resources.
Due to its recent history, there is a limited store of scientific knowledge and research specific to Somalia, which might help to characterize the likely impacts of climate change. However, studies on the impacts of climate change for the Horn of Africa in general predict that the region will be facing more extreme and frequent droughts and floods. These climatic disasters are also the main existing hazards in Somalia. Severe droughts interrupted by devastating floods occur frequently and result in large-scale starvation and the death of thousands of people and livestock. It is anticipated that the nation’s vulnerability to climate change will be intensified by its extremely high dependency on the natural resource base and low Human Development Indicators.
This National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) has been prepared by the UNDP in close collaboration with the Ministry of National Resources, Government of Federal Somalia. The governments in Puntland and Somaliland were also consulted during the NAPA process. The preparation process has closely followed the guiding principles outlined in the annotated guidelines of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Expert Group (LEG) established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Consultative workshops were organized in Federal Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland respectively. During the three participatory workshops, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate risks were discussed and a list of potential adaptation measures and criteria for selection of priority actions were developed. Participants included representatives from the following groups:
Governing Institutions and Authorities;
Traditional and Religious Elders;
Pastoralists and Agro-pastoralists;
The groups identified droughts, floods, extreme high temperatures and strong winds to be the major climate related hazards that they experience. However, it was emphasized by nearly all groups that floods and droughts represent the most severe climate risks and that these should be the priority in the NAPA. A sectoral approach was taken to understand the vulnerabilities to drought and flood within each sector, while also focusing on the particular impacts to vulnerable groups. The sectors that were identified and discussed as vulnerable to climate change included:
Agriculture and Food Security;
Animal Husbandry, Grazing and Rangelands;
Marine and Coastal Resources;
Stakeholders also identified greater vulnerability in general for rural populations as compared to urban and generally agreed that pastoralists are more vulnerable than other groups including agricultural farmers. The vulnerabilities of pastoralists were taken into consideration in the sectoral discussions. However, women and youth were identified as particularly vulnerable groups.
The state and non-state actors identified existing strategies and plans to address environmental challenges specifically, and sustainable development in general, to ensure that the NAPA recommendations are complementary to these plans. Some important strategies that were highlighted include the new provisional constitution adopted by the Federal Republic of Somalia, the ‘Six Pillar Policy’ for Federal Somalia, the 5-year Development Plan for Puntland that is expected to commence in early 2013, and the National Development Plan (NDP 2012-2016) for Somaliland.
Each stakeholder group developed a list of potential adaptation measures to address the identified climate vulnerabilities. For each region, the options that were recommended were consolidated to make three regional lists that consisted of 49, 34 and 22 consolidated recommendations for Federal Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland respectively. The three regional lists were then combined and consolidated to create one national level list of adaptation measures for each sector.
Group-wide decision making with government stakeholders on criteria selection and weighting also took place during the consultations and led to the following four criteria being selected with their relative importance indicated by a percentage weighting. The criteria against which each recommendation was ranked included:
1. Addresses urgent and immediate climate change needs (30%);
2. Contributes to poverty reduction (30%);
3. Linked to government plans and priorities (20%); and
4. Cost-effectiveness (20%)